How far is far? PowerPoint about measurements in Space


Number Facts
    • Ancient Greeks numbered their armies by the Myriad (= ten thousand).
    • In the 1500’s Italian bankers invented the word million. It was short for mille mille (thousand thousand).
    • The French later invented the work billion.
    • There are about a septillion atoms in a glass of water.
    • The sun weighs a little less than two decillion grams.
    • A really big number was named by a nine year old boy when his uncle a mathematician, asked him to think of a name for the number one, followed by 100 zeroes. The name he invented was a googol.
    • Spelling some numbers:

zero
eleven
ten
thousand = 1 000 (3 zeroes)
one
twelve
twenty
million = 1 000 000 (6 zeroes)
two
thirteen
thirty
billion = 1 000 000 000 (9 zeroes)
three
fourteen
forty
trillion = 1 000 000 000 000 (12 zeroes)
four
fifteen
fifty
quadrillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000
five
sixteen
sixty
quintillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000
six
seventeen
seventy
sextillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
seven
eighteen
eighty
septillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
eight
nineteen
ninety
octillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000
nine

hundred
nonillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000



decillion = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 (33 zeroes)


There are other big numbers with names. A zillion has come to mean an arbitrary or unknown large number. A googol is 10^100. A googolplex is 10^googol (10^10^10^2). This number is too large to write here without exponents. Skewes' number (gesundheit) is 10^10^10^34 was used as an upper bound in a mathematical proof. Recently 10^10^10^10^10^7 was used in a proof.
The googolplex has given rise to the n-plex notation: n-plex is 10^n. n-minex is 10^-n. Donald Knuth invented arrow notation, where m^n (^ is an up arrow) is the regular m^n. m^^n is m^m^m^m...^m, with n up arrows. m^^^n is m^^m^^m...^^m, with n ^^s. According to The Book of Numbers by J.H.Conway and R.K.Guy, chained arrow notation is the following enhancement: a^^^^^b is written as a>b>5, where > is a right arrow.
(Source: http://www.jimloy.com/math/billion.htm)

BIG NUMBER FACTS (from http://jacob.efinke.com/bignumbers.html)


  • - The Earth weighs 6,588,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons.
  • - The average American drinks 600 sodas a year.
  • - More than 15,000,000,000 prizes have been given away in Cracker Jack's boxes.
  • - In the year 1990 there were 15,000 vaccuum cleaner related accidents.
  • - There are 50,000 earthquakes a year.
  • - In 1993 there were approximately 64,000,000 cats in America.
  • - The human body contains 70,000 miles of blood vessels.
  • - Because of very high inflation, in the 1920s 1 American dollar = 4,000,000,000,000,000,000 German marcs.
  • - The average person produces 10,000 gallons of saliva in their life.
  • - Americans eat 250,000 lbs. of lobster every day.
  • - Proportionally, if a flea were a person, that person could jump 1,000 feet high.
  • - America spends $300,000,000 on clothes per day.
  • - The average American high school graduate's vocabulary contains 60,000 words.
  • - The largest shadow, cast by a mountain on the canary island, is 200 miles long.
  • - If you drop a penny of the Empire State Building it would go about 106 MPH.
  • - In a study of 200,000 ostriches for a period of over 80 years not once did an ostrich stick its head in the sand.
  • - There were 100 zeroes on this page; now it's 102; now 103; now 104...
  • - People have about 100,000 hairs growing on their heads.
  • - There are 525,600 minutes in a year.
  • - There are 31,536,000 seconds in a year.
  • - One acre of land may have from 50,000 to 1,000,000 worms underground.
  • - There are more than 800,000 species of insects in the world.
  • - There are about 8,000,000 words in the English language.



Naming Polygons
dodecahedron
dodecahedron


Naming a polygon by its number of sides requires that we know the appropriate Greek prefixes along with some rules for their use.

3
=
tri
4
=
tetra
5
=
penta
6
=
hexa or sexa
7
=
hepta
8
=
octa
9
=
nona or ennea
10
=
deca
11
=
undeca or hendeca
12
=
dodeca
13
=
triskaideca
14
=
tetradeca
15
=
pentadeca
16
=
hexadeca
17
=
heptadeca
18
=
octadeca
19
=
enneadeca
20
=
icosa

For polygons with 3 through 20 sides,


simply add "gon" to the prefixes at the left (although a trigon is more commonly called a triangle and a tetragon, a quadrilateral!).


For more than 20 sides, we "construct" the name by using so-called combining prefixes:



Ones Digit

1
=
hena
2
=
di
3
=
tri
4
=
tetra
5
=
penta
6
=
hexa
7
=
hepta
8
=
octa
9
=
ennea or nona

Name these polygons: external image Polygons.jpg


Tens Digit

20
=
icosi
30
=
triaconta
40
=
tetraconta
50
=
pentaconta
60
=
hexaconta
70
=
heptaconta
80
=
octaconta
90
=
enneaconta

3 - 99 SIDES


To "construct" a name, we start with the prefix for the tens digit, follow it by "kai" (the Greek word for "and"), then follow it with the prefix for the units digit, and finally add "gon."



Example: A 35-sided polygon is called a "triacontakaipentagon."



30
and
5
gon
triaconta
kai
penta
gon


100 - 999 SIDES


For numbers from 100 to 999, we need one more combining prefix and another rule.


To "construct" the name, we start with the prefix for the hundreds digit taken from the "Ones Digit" table above, follow it by "hecta," then proceed as before.


Remember: hecta = hundred (100)


Example: A 672-sided polygon is called a " hexahectaheptacontakaidigon."



|| 600 + 70 + and + 2 + gon

hexa + hecta || heptaconta || kai || di || gon ||

Now you try some. When you think have the name, go to the website mentioned below, and click on the ANSWER button to check. || || 83 sides || 257 sides || 999 sides ||

Source: http://faculty.kutztown.edu/schaeffe/Tutorials/General/Polygons.html